MANAGEMENT & The Three Eras of Leadership Management: A Brief History #HarvardBusinessReview

Commentary by Dr. Whitesel: “As my students know, leadership management has gone through three phases which McGrath calls 1) execution, 2) expertise and 3) empathy. Execution (c. 1650-1920) was the “scientific management” or “Theory X” of Adam Clarke and Frederick Taylor. It had little regard for the worker and only cared about the company. Many companies and churches still operate that way today. The second era of management (c. 1920-1955) is sometimes called “Theory Y,” where the expertise of the leader is valued. Leaders got their MBA degrees and this was supposed to equate to better leadership. But research by Finke and Starke (Churching of America, Rutgers Univ. press) has shown that with church leaders education does not usually lead to better leadership. This is because leaders often don’t apply what they are learning, as they learn it. This is why at Wesley Seminary all of our homework assignments are practical assignments that are applied that week in a ministry. The third era (c. 1955-present) according to McGrath is the era of empathy or what has been called servant or transformational leadership. This indicates sensitivity a) to the worker, b) to the market, c) as well as empathy for people around the world. Called “Theory Z” in keeping with previous nomenclature by Alexander Hill in his book Just Business, I prefer the more descriptive term Transformational Leadership – where leadership transforms for the better: a person, a market and the world. See my chapter on this in Foundations of Church Administration (BeaconHill Publishers, 2009). It is this last type of empathetic leadership that best models the type of leadership that Jesus exemplified.”

Read more at … http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/07/managements-three-eras-a-brief-history/