reMIX & Hispanic Population Growth and Dispersion Across U.S. Counties, 1980-2020. #PewResearch #InteractiveMap

by Pew Research, 3/3/22.

U.S. Hispanic population by county,  1980

In 1980, the U.S. population of 226.5 million included 14.6 million Hispanics. Fully 68% of the Hispanic population was concentrated in the 47 counties (out of more than 3,100) that had at least 50,000 Hispanic residents. The map below shows where Hispanics lived in the United States in 1980 and provides detailed information on the 10 counties with the largest Hispanic populations.

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reMIX & Denominations rooted in Africa and Asia now have hundreds of congregations throughout the U.S., which continue to grow. As much as Hispanics have supported Catholicism’s numbers, today there are more Latinx Protestants in the U.S. than Episcopalians.

Sociologists also report that the experience of immigration increases the intensity of whatever religious convictions are held by migrants. They find religious homes in the U.S. within existing congregations and through establishing new ones, often using the facilities of declining churches. Denominations rooted in Africa and Asia now have hundreds of congregations throughout the U.S., which continue to grow. As much as Hispanics have supported Catholicism’s numbers, today there are more Latinx Protestants in the U.S. than Episcopalians.

March 31, 2021 by Wesley Granberg-Michaelson read more at …

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BLACK HISTORY & 5 facts about the religious lives of African Americans #PewResearch #BlackHistoryMonth

by David Masci, Pew Research, 2/7/18.

Religion, particularly Christianity, has played an outsize role in African American history. While most Africans brought to the New World to be slaves were not Christians when they arrived, many of them and their descendants embraced Christianity, finding comfort in the Biblical message of spiritual equality and deliverance. In post-Civil War America, a burgeoning black church played a key role strengthening African American communities and in providing key support to the civil rights movement.

For Black History Month, here are five facts about the religious lives of African Americans.

1 Roughly eight-in-ten (79%) African Americans self-identify as Christian, as do seven-in-ten whites and 77% of Latinos, according to Pew Research Center’s 2014 Religious Landscape Study. Most black Christians and about half of all African Americans (53%) are associated with historically black Protestant churches, according to the study. Smaller shares of African Americans identify with evangelical Protestantism (14%), Catholicism (5%), mainline Protestantism (4%) and Islam (2%).

2 The first predominantly black denominations in the U.S. were founded in the late 18th century, some by free black people. Today, the largest historically black church in the U.S. is the National Baptist Convention U.S.A. Inc. Other large historically black churches include the Church of God in Christ, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), and two other Baptist churches – the National Baptist Convention of America and the Progressive National Baptist Association Inc.

3 African Americans are more religious than whites and Latinos by many measures of religious commitment. For instance, three-quarters of black Americans say religion is very important in their lives, compared with smaller shares of whites (49%) and Hispanics (59%); African Americans also are more likely to attend services at least once a week and to pray regularly. Black Americans (83%) are more likely to say they believe in God with absolute certainty than whites (61%) and Latinos (59%).

4 The share of African Americans who identify as religiously unaffiliated has increased in recent years, mirroring national trends. In 2007, when the first Religious Landscape Study was conducted, only 12% of black Americans said they were religiously unaffiliated — that is, atheist, agnostic or “nothing in particular.” By the time the 2014 Landscape Study was conducted, that number had grown to 18%. As with the general population, younger African American adults are more likely than older African Americans to be unaffiliated. Three-in-ten (29%) African Americans between the ages of 18 and 29 say they are unaffiliated compared with only 7% of black adults 65 and older who say this.

5 Older African Americans are more likely than younger black adults to be associated with historically black Protestant churches. While 63% of the Silent Generation (born between 1928 and 1945) say they identify with historically black denominations, only 41% of black Millennials say the same. (When the survey was conducted in 2014, Millennials included those born between 1981 and 1996.)

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SOCIOECONOMICS & African Americans won’t reach white wealth levels for centuries, report says

By Greg LaRose, | The Times-Picayune, 8/9/16.

The white population in the United States can expect their wealth to grow $18,000 each year over the next 30 years, while the annual increase for African Americans will be only $750 if current fiscal policies stay in place.

“The Ever Growing Gap,” a study released Tuesday (Aug. 9), examines racial income disparities using data from the Survey of Consumer Finance, a research project of the Federal Reserve Board. The Corporation for Enterprise Development and Institute for Policy Studies used information from 1983 to 2013 to make their projections

Their report defines wealth as more than just extra money in the bank. It includes home ownership, having the means to earn a college degree and save for retirement, and other opportunities that are attainable with savings and investments.

The authors point to tax policies designed to build household wealth, benefit homebuyers, increase retirement savings and start a business — opportunities that are out of reach for the poorest segments of the population.

Looking back, whites saw their average wealth increase 84 percent over the past 30 years — 1.2 times the rate for Latinos and three times the African American growth rate.

If the growth rate stays at the current pace, it would take black families 228 years to accumulate the same wealth that white families have today. For Latino families, the gap would take 84 years to close…

The report frames these disparities in the context of recent deaths of African Americans in police shootings.

“These senseless and violent events have not only given rise to the Black Lives Matter movement, they have also sharpened the nation’s focus on the inequities and structural barriers facing households of color,” the report states.

The authors acknowledge their look at wealth data rather than household income further skews the differences, but they note the gaps still exist when considering median wealth figures.

Changes in household wealth
Black Latino White
1983 $67,000 $58,000 $355,000
2013 $85,000 $98,000 $656,000
Survey of Consumer Finance

The report says a more even distribution of wealth would allow the disadvantaged to “get ahead, rather than just scrape by.”

“Imagine that instead of low-wealth Black and Latino families finding themselves unable to deal with fluctuating incomes or how they’re going to make it through an unexpected financial emergency, they have the freedom to invest in their children’s future aspirations. Or, instead of resorting to selling loose cigarettes or CDs to earn a little more money for their families, Blacks and Latinos have the opportunity to build long-term wealth by owning their own businesses.”

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SPANISH & 9 Reasons Why The Spanish Language Isn’t ‘Foreign’ In The United States (or to @WesleySeminary)

Commentary by Dr. Whitesel: Our seminary is the only seminary in North America that offers an entire MDiv degree in Spanish. We do so to serve our Spanish-speaking colleagues. Yet few people realize that Spanish was spoken in the United States before English and that there are more Spanish speakers in the United States than in Spain. For seven more reasons why Spanish is an important language for church leaders to learn, read this helpful article.

Why The Spanish Language Isn’t ‘Foreign’ In The United States

by Roque Planas, Huffington Post, 8/9/16.

Anyone who’s ever enrolled in a Spanish class knows that schools generally refer to it as a “foreign language.” Most of us repeat the phrase uncritically, as if it were actually true. But is it?

Take a look around. Spanish isn’t “foreign” to the United States, at all. The names of many of our states and cities are Spanish — a testament to the fact that Spanish-speakers colonized many areas that later became part of the United States before English-speakers. Many of us use Spanish words when speaking English, often without being aware of what we’re doing. According to a 2013 Pew report, Spanish is the second-most spoken language in the country and many people, both immigrant and native-born, were raised speaking it.

When you really think about it, Spanish is no more “foreign” to the United States than English. Still not convinced? Allow us to break it down for you a bit. Here are nine reasons why Spanish is really is not a foreign language in the U.S…

Read the nine reasons at …

ETHNICITY & Census considers new approach to asking about race – by not using the term at all #PewRe search

BY D’VERA COHN, Pew Research, 6/19/15.

2020 Census QuestionPossible 2020 census race/Hispanic question for online respondents, who would click to the next screen to choose more detailed sub-categories such as “Cuban” or “Chinese.” Credit: U.S. Census Bureau

The Census Bureau is experimenting with new ways to ask Americans about their race or origin in the 2020 census – including not using the words “race” or “origin” at all. Instead, the questionnaire may tell people to check the “categories” that describe them.

Census officials say they want the questions they ask to be clear and easy, in order to encourage Americans to answer them, so the officials can better collect race and Hispanic data as required by law. But many people are confused by the current wording, or find it misleading or insufficient to describe their identity.

Census forms now have two questions about race and Hispanic origin. The first asks people whether they are of Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin, and states that “Hispanic origins are not races.” A second question asks, “What is this person’s race?” and includes a list of options with checkboxes and write-in spaces. The U.S. government defines Hispanic as an ethnicity, not a race.

The problem with using the word “race” is that many Americans say they don’t know what it means, and how it is different from “origin.” The agency’s focus group research found that some people think the words mean the same thing, while others see race as meaning skin color, ancestry or culture, while origin is the nation or place where they or their parents were born.

2010 Census Question on Race and Ethnicity2010 census form asks about race and Hispanic ethnicity separately. Credit: U.S. Census Bureau

The Census Bureau’s own definitions of race and Hispanic origin, which follow government-wide rules from the Office of Management and Budget, sometimes appear to overlap. A white person, for example, is defined as someone “having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa.” Hispanic is defined as a person of “Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.”

The confusion reflects a larger debate about how to define race, which used to be seen as a fixed physical characteristic and now more commonly is viewed as a fluid product of many influences. “We recognize that race and ethnicity are not quantifiable values,” the Census Bureau said in a 2013 report. “Rather, identity is a complex mix of one’s family and social environment, historical or socio-political constructs, personal experience, context, and many other immeasurable factors.”

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MULTIETHNIC & Hispanic congregation outgrows white congregation, muscles into Sunday morning slot #Humor #LarkNews

LANSING — Templo Calvario, a Hispanic church which meets at First Lutheran Church, has outgrown its white host church and seized control of service times.

“We’re bigger, we’re more excited and we’re taking Sunday mornings,” said Fernando Gonzalez, the newly emboldened Hispanic pastor. “They can have 3 p.m. and see how they like it.”

The Templo crew also claimed the main church office, forcing First Lutheran’s staff into broom closets and back rooms which formerly housed Templo’s offices.  Read more at

HISPANICS & Catholic Church losing ground in Latin America & US to Protestant Transfer Growth #USAtoday

by Alan Gomez, USA TODAY, 11/13/14

MIAMI — In just one generation, Latin America has seen the number of people who identify themselves as Catholic plummet, with more people becoming Protestant or dropping religion altogether, a new report shows.


The shift is dramatic for a region that has long been one of the bastions of

Catholicism in the world. With more than 425 million Catholics, Latin America accounts for nearly 40% of the global Catholic population. Through the 1960s, at least 90% of Latin Americans were Catholic, and 84% of people surveyed recently by the Pew Research Center said they were raised Catholic.

But the report released Thursday found that only 69% of Latin Americans still consider themselves Catholic, with more people switching to more conservative Protestant churches (19%) or describing themselves as agnostic or religiously unaffiliated (8%)…

Read more at …

HISPANICS & Differing Religious Views on Morality by Latin American Country #PewResearch

A Pew Research Center survey of 18 Latin American countries and Puerto Rico asked people whether eight specific behaviors — including homosexual behavior and having an abortion — are morally wrong. Even though Catholic Church teaching forbids some of these behaviors, Protestants across the region are more likely than Catholics to see many of them as morally unacceptable.

Abortion: Clear majorities across the region view abortion as morally wrong. In many countries, Protestants are more likely than Catholics to hold this view.

                     Catholics                              Protestants
Country % Morally
% Morally acceptable % Morally wrong % Morally acceptable
Argentina 64 11 79 6
Bolivia 86 3 93 3
Brazil 80 2 88 2
Chile 57 8 78 7
Colombia 82 5 90 2
Costa Rica 82 4 88 4
Dominican Republic 90 2 96 2
Ecuador 84 2 95 3
El Salvador 95 1 93 3
Guatemala 94 1 98 1
Honduras 95 2 96 1
Mexico 71 9 78 5
Nicaragua 87 3 94 2
Panama 89 4 91 5
Paraguay 96 * 96 2
Peru 85 3 91 2
Puerto Rico 73 3 80 7
Uruguay 49 19 68 7
Venezuela 84 5 95 3

Source: Pew Research Center survey of 18 Latin American countries and the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, based on more than 30,000 face-to-face interviews, conducted between October 2013 and February 2014, in Spanish, Portuguese and Guarani.

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LATINO/A & The traditional, married, 2-parent US family that eats home-cooked meals together may be Latino #NPR #PewResearch

by Gene Demby, NPR, 9/28/14

The biggest takeaways from a new study on marriage by the Pew Research Center are these: Fewer Americans who are older than 25 are married than ever before, and by the time they’re middle-aged, a record 25 percent will have never tied the knot.

That might not be too much of a surprise, since marriage rates have been sliding for decades.

But what’s just as interesting is how those numbers break down. … (It’s important to note that 1960 was the highwater mark for American marriages.)

… while the Pew data shows that the rate of non-married Latinos has doubled over the last 50 years and the rate of unmarried, cohabitating parents has climbed, another new study from Child Trends found that nearly 60 percent of Latino children were being raised by two married parents. Latino kids were also more likely than blacks or whites to eat a meal with their families six or seven days a week, and those meals were likely to be cooked at home.

Put another way: when we reference the traditional, married, two-parent American family that eats home-cooked meals together in our popular culture, maybe we should start showing them as Latinos.

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HISPANICS & Percent of Hispanic Adults Who Identify as Protestant #Chart #PewResearch

The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States


Although most U.S. Hispanics continue to belong to the Roman Catholic Church, the Catholic share of the Hispanic population is declining, according to a national survey of more than 5,000 Hispanics. Meanwhile, rising numbers of Hispanics say they are Protestant or are unaffiliated with any religion. Indeed, 24% of Hispanic adults are now former Catholics, with changes in religious affiliation occurring primarily among Latinos ages 18 to 49. Among Latino immigrants who have switched religions, about half did so before coming to the U.S. The survey also finds that in every major religious group, more Latinos favor the Democratic Party than the Republican Party, though there are some differences in party affiliation across groups.

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HISPANICS & Religious Affiliation, By Hispanic Origin Group #InfoGraphic #PewResearch

FT_14.05.27_ReligiousAffiliation2BY JENS MANUEL KROGSTAD

The share of Latino adults who identify as Catholic is declining as the share of Protestants and the religiously unaffiliated rise. Today, 55% of Latinos say they are Catholic, a drop of 12 percentage points in the last four years, while the share of those who are Protestant and unaffiliated with any religion has risen, according to a Pew Research Center survey of Latino adults.

But differences exist among Hispanics when they are looked at by their country of origin: Mexicans and Dominicans are more likely than most other Hispanic origin groups to say they are Catholic. Meanwhile, Salvadorans are more likely to say they are evangelical Protestant than Mexicans, Cubans and Dominicans.

Among the nation’s 53 million Hispanics, some 64% are of Mexican origin. The next biggest group, those of Puerto Rican origin, accounts for 9% of Hispanics in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three other origin groups—Cubans, Salvadorans and Dominicans —each make up at least 3% of Hispanics in the U.S.

About six-in-ten Mexicans (61%) and Dominicans (59%) identify as Catholic, compared with about 49% of Cubans, 45% of Puerto Ricans and 42% of Salvadorans. Some one-third of Salvadorans are evangelical Protestants.

Read more at …

HISPANICS & The Latino Community by the Numbers

Excerpted from America’s Rising Hispanic Church – Part 1

Outreach Magazine, 04/21/2014.

Commentary by Dr. Whitesel: “Outreach Magazine has done their customary exceptional job at drawing together research from many different sources to pen a valid and reliable overview that you can give to laypeople to show them the rising influence and impact of the Hispanic community.”

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Understanding the Opportunity —U.S. Census Bureau

#2 = Ranking of the size of the U.S. Hispanic population worldwide. Only Mexico has a larger Hispanic population.

8 = Number of states with a population of 1 million or more Hispanics: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Texas.

More than 50% = The percentage of the Hispanic population living in California, Florida and Texas.

21 = Number of states in which Hispanics are the largest minority group.

U.S. Hispanics by Origin – Pew Research Center

1. Mexicans 33,539,000
2. Puerto Ricans 4,916,000
3. Salvadorans 1,952,000
4. Cubans 1,889,000
5. Dominicans 1,528,000
6. Guatemalans 1,216,000
7. Colombians 989,000
8. Spaniards 707,000
9. Hondurans 702,000
10. Ecuadorians 649,000
11. Peruvians 556,000
12. Nicaraguans 395,000
13. Venezuelans 259,000
14. Argentineans 242,000

Bicultural Hispanics —Leadership Network
Bicultural Hispanics are typically U.S. born and are bilingual or English-preferred. Many don’t speak Spanish. They are under the age of 45 (average: 27). They are active in both mainstream and Latino cultures. Their social attitudes differ significantly from immigrant Latinos.

Income, Poverty and Health Insurance – U. S. Census Bureau

$38,624 = Median income of Hispanic households

25.3% = Poverty rate among Hispanics in 2011, down from 26.5 in 2010

30.1% = The percentage of Hispanic families that lacked health insurance in 2011

Good News on Education —U.S. Census Bureau/Pew Research Center

69% of Hispanic high school graduates in 2012 immediately enrolled in college. That’s two percentage points higher than their white counterparts (67 percent). There has also been a significant improvement in the drop-out rate among Hispanic high school students14 percent in 2011 compared to 28 percent a decade earlier. Despite this progress, Hispanics do continue to lag behind whites in several key higher education measures. They are less likely to enroll in a four-year college (54 percent versus 72 percent); they are also less likely to attend college full-time or to complete a bachelor’s degree.

63.2% Percentage of Hispanics 25 and older with at least a high school education

13.2% Percentage with a bachelor’s degree of higher (3.7 million)

1.2 Million Number with an advanced degree

Employment and Business – U. S. Census Bureau

67.4% Percentage of Hispanics 16 and older in the civilian work force

19.2% Percentage in management, business, science and the arts

1.2 Million Number of Hispanics 18 and older who are veterans

Latino Religious Affiliation – How U.S. Hispanics identify themselves

70% “I am Catholic”—29 million

23% “I am Protestant” (or “other Christian”)—9.5 million
This includes Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons, though 85 percent of all U.S. Latino Protestants identify themselves as Pentecostal or evangelical (6.2 million)

37% “I am ‘born again’” (or evangelical)—14.2 million
This includes Catholic charismatics (22 percent of U.S. Latino Catholics). Twenty-six percent of all Latino Catholics self-identify as “born again”: 7.6 million.

1% “I follow another world religion”
such as Buddhism, Islam or Judaism.

0.37% “I am an atheist” (or agnostic)

Religious Affiliation by Generation

1st Generation Latino immigrants:
74% Catholic
15% Protestant

2nd Generation
72% Catholic
20% Protestant

3rd Generation
62% Catholic
29% Protestant

DIVERSITY & A Portrait of the Adult Children of Immigrants #PewResearch


by Pew Research, 2/7/13

“Second-generation Americans—the 20 million adult U.S.-born children of immigrants—are substantially better off than immigrants themselves on key measures of socioeconomic attainment, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. They have higher incomes; more are college graduates and homeowners; and fewer live in poverty. In all of these measures, their characteristics resemble those of the full U.S. adult population.”

Read more at…

HISPANICS & When Labels Don’t Fit: A Conversation About Identity #PewResearch

Commentary by Dr. Whitesel: “Research indicates that many Hispanic and Latino Americans lean more towards being “dissonant adapters” rather than “consonant adapters.” This means our churches must respect their cultures and language by giving them equal access and privilege in our congregations. For more on this see my explanations on how this can foster healthy churches in ORGANIX (the chapter called “Graffiti” about the colorful ethnic mix America is becoming).”

When Labels Don’t Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity by PAUL TAYLOR, MARK HUGO LOPEZ, JESSICA MARTÍNEZ and GABRIEL VELASCO, Pew Research, 4/4/12

“Nearly four decades after the United States government mandated the use of the terms ‘Hispanic’ or ‘Latino’ to categorize Americans who trace their roots to Spanish-speaking countries, a new nationwide survey of Hispanic adults finds that these terms still haven’t been fully embraced by Hispanics themselves. A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family’s country of origin; just 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label.

Hispanics are also divided over how much of a common identity they share with other Americans. About half (47%) say they consider themselves to be very different from the typical American. And just one-in-five (21%) say they use the term ‘American’ most often to describe their identity. On these two measures, U.S.-born Hispanics (who now make up 48% of Hispanic adults in the country) express a stronger sense of affinity with other Americans and America than do immigrant Hispanics.”Moreover, by a ratio of more than two-to-one (69% versus 29%), survey respondents say that the more than 50 million Latinos in the U.S. have many different cultures rather than a common culture. Respondents do, however, express a strong, shared connection to the Spanish language. More than eight-in-ten (82%) Latino adults say they speak Spanish, and nearly all (95%) say it is important for future generations to continue to do so.

Read more at …

DIVERSITY: ‘Mexican,’ ‘Hispanic’ and ‘Latin American’ top li st of race write-ins in census

Hispanics' "some other race" write-in codes‘Mexican,’ ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latin American’ top list of race write-ins on the 2010 censusby Mark Hugo Lopez and Jens Manuel Krogstad

“What is your race? The U.S. Census Bureau asks this question of every U.S. household, but the menu of options offered may feel limiting to some.

On the 2010 census form, in addition to boxes marked “white,” “black or African Am. Or Negro” or “American Indian or Native Alaskan” or one of several Asian options, respondents have the option to select a box called “some other race”—and to write in a response in a box below.

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